Publications

Publications

Paper 1: Understanding the choices for building controls
Authors: BRE
Published in Information Paper publication (IP1/14)

Abstract:
The control of energy in smaller buildings is generally poor, despite the availability of a range of tried and tested systems incorporating both mature and innovative technologies. The installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) zone controls, optimising controllers for wet heating systems, and lighting controls are encouraged by the government. Financial support through the enhanced capital allowances (ECA) scheme and good practice guidance from the Carbon Trust is provided. Despite this, specifications are often limited to the minimum requirements; innovative technologies, such as pre-programmed packaged building energy management systems (BEMS) and demand control ventilation (DCV), are rarely applied. This Information Paper addresses the barriers to applying energy efficient control systems by providing simple explanations of innovative technology, what it can do, where and why it can and should be used - the pros and cons, and how to get to an effective solution in practice.
Paper 2: Application of Acoustic Sensing Technology for improving Building Energy Efficiency
Authors: AIT, FHR
Published in The 4th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Information Technology (SEIT-2014)

Abstract:
The intention of the “Energy efficient & Cost competitive retrofitting solutions for Shopping buildings” (EcoShopping) project is to increase the energy efficiency of a building and, additionally to optimise the investments necessary to achieve this major goal by incorporating innovative approaches and new technology that adds additional value. One solution being developed is a multipurpose mobile robot platform equipped with, but not limited to, acoustic sensing technology. This will be introduced to the environment, allowing an accurate, real user oriented, flexible sensing solution for indoor comfort monitoring and assessment of a commercial building. In the context of all three projects, EcoShopping aims for the quantification of value of the different acoustic sensing technologies in terms of cost-benefit analysis.
Paper 3: EcoShopping: Energy efficient and cost competetive retrofitting solutions for retail buildings
Authors:BRE
Published in Proceedings of the 6th Romanian Conference on Energy Performance of Buildings (RCEPB 2014)

Abstract:
The project intends to use and integrate available products and technologies along with a network of low-cost equipment to accurately monitor the environmental and occupancy parameters to have better control of the Building Management System and full exploitation of the Building Thermal Mass, which serves as a “Thermal Battery” and stores the RES directly without using battery, tank or other expensive storage material and simplifying the system structure.
Paper 4: Implementation of an automated building model generation tool
Authors: AIT
Published in INDIN’2014

Abstract:
Building modeling and simulation are resource intensive tasks, mostly with respect to personnel time and therefore costs, which could benefit from automation. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in automating the task of building modeling, but due to the uniqueness of each building, automated building modeling solutions are very demanding. Consequently, commercial as well as open-source solutions have been made available in the past years, but really reliable solutions are very scarce. This paper presents an approach to automate the generation of thermal building models. A tool has been developed which serves as a base for future studies and improvements in the automatic model creation and calibration field, reducing the modeling effort and resources for thermal building models were reduced significantly. The output of the model generator supports the validation and analysis phase of ISO 50001 regarding forecasting the building performance for validation purposes. While building planners benefit the most from this approach, it will also be the basis to support other modeling approaches automatically which can be used for model-based controls in the field of Building Management.
Paper 5: A Prototypical Automated Building Modeling Tool
Authors: AIT
Published in BauSim 2014

Abstract:
Building energy modeling is a complex and time consuming process. Automation may reduce the complexity and cost associated to the building modeling process; especially when highly specialized personnel are necessary. This paper presents a prototypical building model generation tool which automatically generates a complex building model for thermal simulation. The generated models allow forecasting of yearly or monthly thermal energy demand of a building, and are able to consider individual conditions for every floor with respect to different load profiles as well as geometry. These two features improve the quality of the energy consumption forecast significantly, especially by increasing the range of possible applications to multiusage buildings e.g. partially used as residential or office building. A proof of concept has been performed for typical building geometries to outline the following benefits: reduction of modeling effort, improvement of the energy performance evaluation and comparability between buildings with similar geometries.
Paper 6: An enhanced process model for the semi-automated depoyment of Simulation-aided Building Controls
Authors: AIT
Published in The 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society

Abstract:
A Simulation-assisted Building Control (SaBC) system extends state-of-the-art building controls by modeling a building's physical properties and using simulation to optimize its performance. In an SaBC, control strategies are first simulated, then the best alternative is selected and actuated by the building automation system. SaBCs enable highly efficient and grid-friendly buildings. Deploying these controls however is a complex process due to the uniqueness of each building along with an increasing complexity of building systems. Typically the deployment tasks are performed manually by highly specialized personnel, which results in a poorly documented and extremely scattered deployment process. This paper improves the workflow for the deployment of a Simulation-aided Building Control service suitable for supporting the operational phase of a building. Some tasks in the deployment process may benefit from machine support, especially data intensive, repetitive and error prone tasks. The proposed approach reduces the complexity of the setup procedure, decreases problems related to the uniqueness of the infrastructure and supports the documentation of the deployment process. As a consequence, the overall performance is improved, deployment costs are reduced with respect to both time and money, and the re-usability is increased.
Paper 7: EcoShopping: Energy efficient and cost competetive retrofitting solutions for retail buildings - a review of best practice
Authors: BRE
Published in Proceedings of SET2015

Abstract:
This study identifies that building regulations and their associated codes lay down minimum levels of performance for non-domestic buildings but not attempt to prompt best practice. Best practice criteria were identifies for the majority of technology areas. For such a case study, it is essential that the methodologies are comparable with those already in use and that technologies match or exceed best practice criteria already published. In addition, producing auditable numbers is essential to showing transparency in how the energy savings claimed are justified.
Paper 8: Measurement of thermophysical properties coupled with LCA assessment for the optimization of a historical building retrofit
Authors: CNR
Published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Abstract:
The accurate characterization of the materials was the starting point for the estimation of the environmental impact of the retrofit aimed to reach a defined thermal transmittance. A model of the building was created with TRNSYS software to calculate the energy consumption before and after the intervention. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis was conducted on different insulation materials to determine the one with the lowest impact.
Paper 9: Quality Assessment of Automatically Generated Simplied Thermal Building Models
Authors: AIT
Published in Building Simulation 2015

Abstract:
Building modeling and simulation are resource intensive tasks. The modeling effort for thermal building models can be reduced significantly by automatic model generation. n this work, an extension of an existing prototypical building model generation tool chain is discussed. This extension integrates a collaborative mapping solution into building modeling for thermal simulation. The improved tool chain was validated using three models of the same building generated manually, semi-automatically and utomatically. Simulations were performed using each model to assess their quality by comparison with measured data. The results show the suitability of the automated rocess as a cost-effective method to generate models for building performance simulation.
Paper 10: Asset management for environmental conditions
Authors: BRE
Published in Information Paper publication (IP2/16)

Abstract:
"This Information Paper reviews the management of simple buildings, such as warehouses, for environmental conditions. The demands for environmental conditions in UK warehousing and retail sheds were researched and issues of user comfort and specific product categories (eg grain, spirit maturation, palletised and racking storage units, and depots) were explored. The Information Paper considers temperature and humidity control, types of heating systems, retrofit measures, lighting recommendations, and benefits of retrofit or replacement. A specific case study of whisky maturation warehouses is used to highlight the ability to measure and model environmental conditions and the significance of their impact on process"
Paper 11: EcoShopping: Energy efficient and cost competetive retrofitting solutions for retail buildings - a review of best practice
Authors: BRE
Published in Proceedings of 9th International Conference Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings and Smart Communities

Abstract:
The study concluded that: Building codes lay down minimum performance levels for building fabric elements and services; The energy performance of non-domestic building as designed should be calculated holistically by the use of approved software. The software should then be used to for quantifying options; in conjunction with first step an EN 16247 energy audit; Best Practice for Technology areas was identified as lying within the EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria and the UK’s Energy Technology List (ETL); Controls are one of the most effective solutions in realising energy savings, and EN 15232 should be used; Best practice guidance for low carbon refurbishment and daylighting has been identified; The UK Microgeneration Certification Scheme (‘MCS’) has a method for estimating the electricity generated from installed PV systems. However, no performance criteria for wind turbines and Micro-hydro systems were found; The energy consumption of lifts, escalators or moving walks should also be addressed; as these are often ignored by building codes. Best practice, in the form of CIBSE guide D: Transportation systems in buildings, has just been published.
Paper 12: Exergetic Performance Assessment of the IKVA Shopping Center in the city of Sopron, Hungary
Authors: YASAR
Published in 8th EGE ENERGY SYMPOSIUM AND EXHIBITION

Abstract:
Based on the simulation results of the demo building, the total heating and cooling demand rates of the first floor are 39.5 kW and 66.9 kW, respectively. The retrofitting surface area is 984.7 m2. The HP system (Case 2) is integrated with a capillary tube radiant cooling/heating system with inlet water and outlet water temperature values of 32°C and 28°C, and 16 °C and 18 °C in the heating and cooling modes, respectively. The co-authors of this study, one of the Partners of the ECOSHOPPING project under the name of YASAR, explain the heating and cooling system considered first. Then, they evaluate the performance of the retrofitting section of the building using low exergy (the so-called LOWEX) approach from the primary energy production to the building envelope. Finally, they present the results obtained from this exergetic assessment in terms of exergy destructions and efficiencies while they list some concluding remarks. The total energy efficiency values for Cases 1 and 2 are determined to be 37.73% and 42.87% while the corresponding total exergy efficiency values for both cases are obtained to be 4.88% and 5.65%, respectively.
Paper 13: EcoShopping: Energy efficient and cost competetive retrofitting solutions for retail buildings - a review of best practice
Authors: BRE
Published in Proceedings of the 8th Romanian Conference on Energy Performance of Buildings (RCEPB 2016)

Abstract:
The project intends to use and integrate available products and technologies along with a network to accurately monitor for environmental and occupancy parameters to allow the Building Management System to have better control of the building and fully exploit the thermal mass.
Paper 14: Radiant Heating-Cooling Performance Assessment in a Shopping Center in Sopron, Hungary
Authors: YASAR
Published in 3rd International Conference on Energy and Environment Research, ICEER 2016

Abstract:
In this study, performance of a radiant heating-cooling via air source heat pump was investigated. This study is part of a project funded by European Union’s FP7 for research, technological development and demonstration. In the project it is aimed that a holistic retrofitting solution for commercial buildings to reduce primary energy consumption down to less than 80 kWh/m2 per year. A shopping center called IKVA located in Sopron, Hungary used as a demo building. In that building a heat pump system integrated with a radiant heating and cooling system is used. In this paper, two different cases are compared regarding air source heat pump system; in Case-1 air source of the heat pump is outdoor air, in Case-2 air source of heat pump is return air.
Paper 15: Exergoeconomic Evaluation of the IKVA Shopping Center in the City of Sopron, Hungary
Authors: YASAR
Published in SBE16

Abstract:
"The paper deals with exergoeconomic analysis of a heat pump (HP) heating system in a building. The total heating and cooling demand rates of the first floor are 39.5 kW and 66.9 kW, respectively. The retrofitting surface area is 984.7 m2. The HP system is integrated with a capillary tube radiant cooling/heating system with inlet water and outlet water temperature values of 32°C and 28°C, and 16 °C and 18 °C in the heating and cooling modes, respectively. Exergy, cost, energy and mass (the so-called EXCEM) method is used in the analysis. In this regard, we, as one of the Partners of the ECOSHOPPING project under the name of YASAR, briefly explain the heating and cooling system considered first. We then assess the performance of the retrofitting section of the building using the EXCEM and low exergy (LOWEX) methods. Finally, we present the results obtained and discuss about them. The overall exergy efficiencies of the heating system from the primary energy production to the building envelope were determined to be between 9.2% and 11.5% while the ratios of the exergy loss rates to capital cost values were in the range of 0.0387-0.063 W/Euro."
Paper 16: Thermal response measurement of building insulating materials by Infrared Thermography
Authors: CNR
Published in Energy and Buildings

Abstract:
The existing building stock requires substantial interventions to meet the energy performance criteria imposed by the current standards. The installation of a new insulating layer into the building envelope is the most common energy retrofit measure. This strategy is usually focused only on steady state thermal conditions while it influences also the transient thermal behavior. However the on − site characterization of the building dynamic behavior is partially or totally neglected, due to the lack of a feasible investigation procedure. This may lead to a negative thermal performance of the building, paving the way to litigations between the contractor and the tenants. A novel measurement technique, based on infrared thermography, is proposed to investigate the dynamic behavior of the wall. Several wall samples are tested in laboratory with an experimental layout that resembled an outdoor installation, where a sinusoidal thermal stimulus is imposed on the back of the specimen. The surface temperature evolution over time is recorded with an infrared camera both on the front and on the back surfaces of the specimen, in order to measure the time-shift on a broad wall area. A key aspect of the proposed experimental procedure is that it could be applied to the on-site building survey, significantly improving the evaluation of the actual energy performance of the building. The obtained results are compared with a mathematical model showing good agreement.
Paper 17: Radiant Heating-cooling Performance Assessment in a Shopping Center in Sopron, Hungary
Authors: YASAR
Published in Energy Procedia

Abstract:
In this study, performance of a radiant heating-cooling via air source heat pump was investigated. This study is part of a project funded by European Union's FP7 for research, technological development and demonstration. In the project it is aimed that a holistic retrofitting solution for commercial buildings to reduce primary energy consumption down to less than 80 kWh/m2 per year. A shopping center called IKVA located in Sopron, Hungary used as a demo building. In that building a heat pump system integrated with a radiant heating and cooling system is used. In this paper, two different cases are compared regarding air source heat pump system; in Case-1 air source of the heat pump is outdoor air, in Case-2 air source of heat pump is return air.